Posted: June 14th, 2022
· Racial Identity Models
Read pages 70-86, where the texts describes the various racial identity models and discuss your own identity and what influences impacted how you see yourself in relation to these models and your stage of personal cultural development. What biases and prejudices do you have yet to address or confront in order to elevate your level of professional practice and multicultural competency? Write your response in 250-300 words, supporting your comments with two references
Family & Culture
Refer to readings on pages 115 – 124 to analyze and determine the most culturally competent manner in which you might respond to a family of a different culture as a human service professional. Think of what “family” means to you and how it might be different from clients you might encounter. Discuss these topics in 250-300 words as well as any issues that might enhance or impede your effectiveness related to similarities and/or differences. Support your comments with two references
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Welcome to Week Two! This week we will evaluate some of the cultural, racial, and ethnic identity development theories—beginning with a historical look back at some of the early theories before moving forward in time to review some of the contemporary models. We will also evaluate how individual development in its complexity impacts interactions with others both similar and different from one’s self.
In Chapter 4, you will likely find it helpful to focus your reading on the identity models that allow you to examine them in relation to your own self-identity. This information will be utilized as you share your insights in this week’s written assignment and discussions. Refer to Table 4.1 Stage of Various Cultural Identity Models (p.71) for a helpful conceptual overview of the cultural models being presented throughout the chapter. Another tip: Narrative 3.1: The Story of Timothy (p.91-2) is a great example for your assignment due this week.
In Chapter 6, focus your attention on analyzing the diverse cultural family structures and explore Exercise 6.3 Assessing my Family Background and Experience (p.124) for further understanding of your own self-concept development and community connections.
While it is no surprise that people have multiple identities as in the images below,
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why do you think some struggle with the concept of individuals having multiple ethnic identities? Nishime (2012) provides a case study of the term “Cablinasian” and links historical and contemporary narratives of multiethnicity. She argues that “Cablinasian” is a method of critique and explores the possibilities of an alternative and contestatory language of multiethnic nomenclature. Ready or not, we live in an “i” world: iTunes, iPhone, iPad, iPod, iCloud, iMessage, iFit, iHeartRadio, iStation, iWatch. We reject other’s programming and create our own playlists to listen to what we want when we want. Human being are reclaiming the right to reinvent themselves when a previous career or identity no longer suits them, and they are claiming the right to name themselves rather than accept names others give to them or impose on them. Humans are putting the “I” back in “Identity”. What are the implications of this on your current and/or future profession?
An Example of Self-Reflection on One’s Identity Development
As you think about how you might answer Discussion 1, you might find it helpful to review Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee’s slideshow (Links to an external site.) “I Learned Who I Was When…Identity Development” at .
Family: A Chinese Perspective
As you reflect on the readings, consider your concept of “family.” What does family mean to you? Do all of your friends, acquaintances, coworkers, and neighbors have the same concept of family? The video Home and Family (Links to an external site.), available in the AU Library Films on Demand database, demonstrates the nuances of the Chinese language through talking about family. This brief, 15-minute program illustrates practical techniques for talking about home life and family connections in Chinese. Cultural topics include: young people in Beijing and their opinions about traditional values, festivities at a country wedding, socializing at family gatherings, and the influence of Western trends on Chinese families and relationships (Sprent, 2004).
The Importance of Understanding Identity as a Multiculturally Competent Human Services Professional
This week as you read through the various identity models (pp.70-80), you might find yourself reflecting on what stages and models seems to apply best to you and how this information might influence your human services profession. However, even more important than labeling yourself in a particular stage, reflect on your changes over time and through different experiences. Ethnicity and self-concept development is a lifelong process (multicultural lifework), and there may be many cultural issues involved when referring to your own self-assessment or your clients’ stage within these models. This is where self-consciousness and identityare helpful towards this development. Schmidt (2006) states “self-consciousness gives the person an identity from which to behave” (p.90). This awareness provides further understanding of yourself on how you developed your own thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes. It also provides a way to understand other cultures and develop cultural sensitivities. It is essential to have an awareness of diverse family cultures as this can be beneficial to your human services profession. We are all born into families; however, those particular circumstances and experiences we face are what influence our identity and belief systems. As our textbook author noted, “Cultural and ethnic beliefs are influential factors in family processes and subsequently in a person’s self-concept development” (Schmidt, 2006, p.112).
Another Perspective: Aversive Racism/Aversive “XYZ”-ism
Aversive racism is a specific type of contemporary racism held by people who (a) endorse egalitarian values and beliefs, (b) believe themselves to be unprejudiced, but (c) unconsciously hold negative beliefs about other groups, and (d) subtly discriminate in ways that are ambiguous and indirect and that can be rationalized as something other than racial discrimination (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2008). After reviewing evidence of bias in health care delivery, Dovidio, Penner, Albrecht, Norton, Gaertner, and Shelton (2008) make a strong case for aversive racism’s likely role in health care disparities. It should be noted that aversive racism is not considered pathological or intentionally malevolent. Placing people into known groups is learned through socialization experiences, and exposure to non-affirming cultural messages occurs in a variety of social contexts. Social cues for aversive racism exist in many forms routinely encountered in daily life (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). While racism was the major focus for the original research, the model can be applied to any “–ism” (e.g., aversive sexism, aversive homophobia, aversive ageism) and to any context in which there is intergroup contact. Extending the work of previous researchers, Rodenborg and Boisen (2013) review two social psychology theories, aversive racism and intergroup contact, as they consider the likelihood of social worker prejudice. They also offer strategies for improvement that have implications for those in helping professions.
Cultural, Racial, & Ethnic Identity Models
(Highlights from the Required Readings)
In working with clients in human service settings, we will often need to assess clients in terms of their psychological & emotional development. In order to fully assess this development, we must take into account clients’ cultural and ethnic identities. Having stage theories of ethnic and cultural identity development to draw upon in making our assessments with clients is a good starting point for making cultural conceptualizations. Schmidt makes an excellent point that “equally important is the understanding theoretical models might offer about your own cultural identity” (Schmidt, 2006, p. 69). In this week’s article by Gastelaars & Haar (2006), they discuss how social workers “use their clients’ “culture” as one of the many methodological tools that are available, to open up a dialogue between themselves and their clients,” and this is often the case in clinical and human services work.
Another interesting aspect of African American identity that many authors have explored—and is discussed in your text—is that of Code Switching. Think of it as being bicultural (and sometimes bilingual), and it is a skill that enables African Americans to move between two or more communities (Schmidt, 2006). Living in a multicultural world, it is increasingly clear that the ability to travel among different cultural arenas can be an advantage for work, education, shopping, special events, tourism, holidays, etc. even if one continues to live within a predominantly homogenous community.
Another important concept in racial identity is that of Bridging, which occurs when individuals form strong relationships, even intimate ones, with others outside of their predominant identity groups. In these instances, “they are able to bridge differences in establishing deep friendships and loving unions,” (Schmidt, 2006, p.73). Bridging can help lead to improved and more peaceful relations between groups.
Bonding describes when people form strong ties with a particular group and identify with their own group(s) to emphasize a sense of cultural uniqueness and richness, (Schmidt, 2006). In many ways, Bonding is what happens when people begin to identify with movements that celebrate their identity like heritage movements and celebrations or even PLAG.
Then we have the concept of Individualism. Individualism refers to how people establish a self-identity that extends beyond a single aspect of their identity and how they create a uniquely personal identity that includes aspect of previous identity developmental stages (Schmidt, 2006).
Schmidt continues to explain many unique aspects of other various identity theories in Chapter 4, such as those covering “White Identity” (avoidant, dependent, dissonant, dominative, conflictive, reactive, integrative) and “Asian Identity” (assimilation vs. ethnic identity), and Biracial Identity amongst others.
Schmidt (2006) defines ethic identity as
“the process of associating, connecting, and linking with a particular cultural group. The ethnicity of a group is the mixture and fusion of countless traits, beliefs, behaviors, languages, and traditions that distinguish it from other groups. Clearly, not all members of a particular ethnic group embrace the same beliefs, display the same characteristics, or behave in identical ways. Every ethnic group consists of individuals, who form subgroups within the larger culture, and these subgroups sometimes differ in the emphasis and importance they assign to various aspects of the group,” (p. 86-87).
Multiple Identities: Theorist such as Robinson (2005) note that people experience a convergence of social statuses with other identity factors such as gender, ethnicity, cultural identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, physical ability, etc. Reynolds and Pope (1991) proposed a theory around multiple identities called Multidimensional Identity Model (MIM) which delineates a person based on two identity dimensions that each consist of two aspects (Schmidt, 2006, p. 88).
Family, Culture, & Self-Concept Development
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A fun and informative book to increase awareness and knowledge of how culture and family interact is Ethnic and Family Therapy (Links to an external site.) edited by McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto (2005). Sections are devoted to several ethnic groups within each of the following categories: American Indian and Pacific Islander Families, Families of African Origin, Latino Families, Asian Families, Asian Indian and Pakistani Families, Middle Eastern Families, Families of European Origin, Jewish Families, and Slavic Families.
According to Steigerwald (2003), “The family is the vehicle that both carries culture forward to the next generation and teaches values, prejudices, worldviews, and cultural identity” (p. 213). In Chapter 6, Schmidt explores the various unique and specific factors that help define the family structure and cultural identity of African American families, Asian families, Arab families, Jewish families, Latino/Hispanic families, and European American families. In the summary of Chapter 6, Schmidt states, “The ultimate goal is to help clients process their beliefs and goals within an appropriate cultural context and make decisions that can bring resolution to the conflict while maintaining respect for family and culture” (Schmidt, p. 125). Sometimes in our work in the health and human services field, we will need to merely point out the important influence of family on a client and help them to gain better awareness of their family structure and its impact on their own self-concept and cultural identity. Other times, we may even decide to bring in family members to interact with the client and us in order to problem-solve and work through any barriers or issues.
Additional Recommended Readings & Videos
(You are welcome to use any of these in your discussion postings.)
Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Arogundade. B. (n.d.). Black history 1997: He’s not black, he’s Cablinasian — Tiger Woods declares his racial independence (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from
(Note: This is not a scholarly source.)
Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2010). Culture-Infused counselling: A model for developing multicultural competence. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23(2), 217-233. doi: 10.1080/09515071003798212
Gastelaars, M. Van, d. H. (2007). Facing culture: The (de)legitimation of social work. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 27(11/12), 447-459. Retrieved from
McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.). (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Pendersen, P. B. (1991). Multiculturalism as a generic approach to counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(1), 6-12. Retrieved from
Sperry, L. (2010). Culture, personality, health, and family dynamics: Cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments. Family Journal, 18(3), 316-320. doi:10.1177/1066480710372129
Gil-González, D., Vives-Cases, C., Borrell, C., Agudelo-Suárez, A. A., Davó-Blanes, M. C., Miralles, J., & Álvarez-Dardet, C. (2014). Racism, other discriminations and effects on health. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 16(2), 301-309. Retrieved from
Sumter, M. (2006). Domestic violence and diversity: A call for multicultural services. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 29(2), 173-190. Retrieved from
Tate, G. A. (1999). Structured racism, sexism, and elitism: A hound that “sure can hunt” (The chronicity of oppression). Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(1), 18-20. Retrieved from
Woodcock, J., & Tregaskis, C. (2008). Understanding structural and communication barriers to ordinary family life for families with disabled children: A combined social work and social model of disability analysis. British Journal of Social Work, 38(1), 55-71. Retrieved from
Baker, J. M. (Director), & Baker, J. M., Duddridge, P. (Producers). (2010). A film about races: A fresh look at diversity (Links to an external site.) . Retrieved from
Description: An exploration of the notion of race, this program follows host Paul Duddridge as he pushes aside society’s taboos to find out what “race” really is. Duddridge organizes a mini-Olympics based on racial identity to demonstrate the fluidity of the concept—he notes that Jews and Arabs will be on the same team—and the participants poke fun at their own tendency to stereotype. With significant input from sociologists, anthropologists, and authors including John Baugh (Beyond Ebonics), Kwame Anthony Appiah (The Ethics of Identity), and Jon Entine (Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of the Chosen People), the video examines some common misconceptions about race.
Ruiz, W.R. (Producer). (2007). Identities: Culture and nationality in Europe today (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from
Description: What prevents minority communities from joining the European mainstream? Is there an appropriate balance between assimilation and preserving one’s cultural heritage? This program wrestles with questions of identity—racial, cultural, and sexual—resulting from the startling new diversity of European society. Depicting daily life in immigrant communities on the Continent and in Great Britain, the film features observations from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern transplants. Each offers his or her personal take on learning a new language, eating unfamiliar foods, adapting to foreign attitudes toward women and gays, and other dilemmas. In addition, European MP Wolf Klinz puts forward his belief that immigrants should be required to learn the language of their adopted country.
Preview of the week’s assignments and readings
Comments & Tips
Readings & Other
Racial Identity Models
Review the Cultural, Racial, and Ethnic Identity Models in your text to prepare for this discussion.
See the course for information about how to access the required materials.
Textbook: Chapters 4 and 6
Forest-Band & Jenson (2015) article
Gastelaars & Haar (2007) article
Guo & Phillips (2006) article
Family & Culture
In this post you will analyze and determine the most culturally competent manner in which you might respond to a family of a different culture as a human service professional.
The Story of
(Insert Your Name)
This assignment allows you to practice writing a culture-based history. If for some reason, you would prefer not to write about yourself, you may write about a fictitious character as long as you address all components in the assignment instructions.
California Newsreel [Screen name]. (2014, April 24). Race—The Power of an Illusion (Links to an external site.). [Video file]. Retrieved from
Dovidio, J.F., & Gaertner, S.L. (2008). New directions in aversive racism research: Persistence and pervasiveness. In C .Willis-Esqueda (Ed.), Motivational aspects of prejudice and racism (pp. 43-67). New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Dovidio, J.F., Penner, L.A., Albrecht, T.L, Norton, W.E., Gaeriner, S.L., & Shelton, J.N. (2008). Disparities and distrust: The implications of psychological processes for understanding racial disparities in health and health care (Links to an external site.). Social Science & Medicine, 67(3), 478-486. Retrieved from
Gaertner, S.L., & Dovidio, J.F. (2005). Understanding and addressing contemporary racism: From aversive racism to the common ingroup identity model (Links to an external site.). Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 615-639. Retrieved from
Nishime, L. (2012). The case for Cablinasian: Multiracial naming from Plessy to Tiger Woods (Links to an external site.). Communication Theory, 22(1), 92–111. Retrieved from
Rodenborg, N.A., & Boisen, L.A. (2013). Aversive racism and intergroup contact theories: Cultural competence in a segregated world (Links to an external site.). Journal of Social Work Education, 49(4), 564-579. Retrieved from
Sprent, M. (Director & Producer). (2004). Home and Family (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from
Lee, R.E.R. (2011). I Learned Who I Was When…Identity Development (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from
Schmidt, J. J. (2006). Social and cultural foundations of counseling and human services: Multiple influences on self-concept development. Boston, MA: Pearson
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