Posted: September 6th, 2022

350 words due in 15 hours.

This week’s discussion question is focused on validity and reliability (two distinct concepts), and includes specific questions in regards to sampling and measurement.  Using information that you have learned from this week’s multimedia video and the assigned chapters in both the Shi and Hawkes textbooks (two chapters from each book), you will critique the two articles assigned this week and demonstrate your understanding of the items mentioned above.  Please make sure that you fully answer the following questions and make a clear distinction between these two crucial concepts – reliability and validity.

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  • What makes a research study valid and reliable?
  • What issues related to sampling (e.g., size and selection of sample data) do researchers need to keep in mind? What are the limitations of sampling in conducting research?
  • What considerations need to be taken into account regarding measurement?
  • Describe the strengths and weaknesses of each of the studies described in the articles, as well as the sample design(s). Be sure that your analysis takes into account bothsampling and measurement.
  • Propose potential remedies to address the weaknesses of each study.

Specifically, you may be able to answer these questions as they relate to the two articles:

  • Did the authors address their sample size – was it large enough to determine significance or were their any issues with sampling in general?
  • Did the authors address both validity and reliability?  What do these two terms mean (define each term and provide examples), how are they different, and how were these two concepts addressed in your article (or if not addressed, how could they have been addressed)?
  • Does a large sample size, compared to a smaller sample size, automatically improve the outcome of the sampling (provide a better sample) in the data gathering process?  If so, how?  If not, what can authors do to improve their sampling methods?  What issues might arise from poor sampling?
  • What about measurement?  How researchers measure the attributes of their variables is extremely important, as well as how researchers define their variables.  Did the authors address these issues?
  • Explain in detail (don’t just list) some of the specific types of validity and reliability (e.g., predictive validity, face validity, content validity and interrator reliability).  Did you see evidence of any of these in one of the articles – or did the authors simply state that the study had these characteristics?  What issues might be encountered if a study does not have one or more of these characteristics?


  • Article: McCue, M. J., Diana, M. L., & Hennum, L. A. (2007, September/October). Assessing the performance of freestanding hospitals. Journal of Healthcare Management52(5), 299–307. Retrieved from

    This article details the application of descriptive statistics to analyze the factors that contribute to a consistently positive cash flow in freestanding hospitals.

  • Article: Ozgen, H., & Ozcan, Y. A. (2002, June). A national study of efficiency for dialysis centers: An examination of market competition and facility characteristics for production of multiple dialysis outputs. Health Services Research, 37(3), 711–732. Retrieved from

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