Posted: September 10th, 2022

HA560 Unit 2 Discussion


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Research the following Models or Theories – Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior and Transtheoretical Model. In your own words, answer the following questions:

  • What is the definition of each model or theory?
  • How do those conducting health assessment, planning and evaluation utilize these models or theories?
  • How do these theories define the framework of a community’s health needs?

In two diferent paragraph give your personal information to Zandra Tyler and Jessica Locklear 


Zandra Tyler 

Health Belief Model

The Health Belief Model (HBM) was developed to help social scientists understand why people failed to embrace disease prevention strategies. The theory proposes that a person’s belief system will foretell the probability of them adopting a behavior. The tenants of HBM include perceived susceptibility, severity and benefits. Susceptibility involves our personal belief about risk of acquiring an illness or disease. We see this happening with Covid-19. Individuals evaluate the severity and medical consequences of contracting a disease or illness. Finally, people weigh the barriers or costs of their actions/inaction against potential health consequences.

Planned Behavior:

The theory of planned behavior was developed by Icek Ajzen. It is a social cognitive theory that has guided a large majority of theory-based research on physical activity. It involves conscious activities like thinking and reasoning. The theory suggests that our intention, attitude, norms and perception influence our behavior. An individual’s intent determines whether or not they will engage in a behavior. According to iresearch, the stronger one’s intention to perform a behavior, the more likely they will be to engage in that behavior (“The Theory of Planned Behavior – IResearchNet,” 2016). Planned behavior is commonly used in sports.

The transtheoretical model

The transtheoretical model (TTM) is a theory of change based on a common set of change processes that can be applied across a broad range of health behaviors. TMM involves six stages; precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination. Each stage brings individuals closer to making or sustaining behavioral changes. TTM is commonly used to change smoking behavior and in weight loss programs.


The Health Belief Model. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2020, from


Health Belief Model: Definition, Theory, & Examples. (2017, July 6). Retrieved from

Health Belief Model. (2012, January 31). Retrieved August 31, 2020, from

The Theory of Planned Behavior-iresearchnet. (2016, November 7. Retrieved from https://psychology.


Jessica Locklear 

The Health Belief Model (HBM) is the theory that uses individual people’s beliefs about their risk to a disease or health problems and how they perceive the benefits of taking action or no action (Glanz, 2016).

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is the model of using perceived behavior control with behavioral intention that can be used to predict behavior (Glanz, 2016).

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a model that uses stage of change in behavior noting that people are at all different levels of accepting change or initiating change (Azjen, 1991).

Organizations can use the HBM, TPB, and TTM models to draft plan of action in their community by using specific models to influence all people within the community. Using these models allows policymakers and stake holders to use proven theories of personal behaviors to create plans that work within their own communities.

The theories define the framework by providing a method to determine people’s individual behaviors and attitudes toward their own health and the health of others. Understanding that one’s own perception of risk of disease, behavior, and stages of change are helpful when determining how a plan can initiate change in each person.

I find these models to be remarkably interesting, especially in times like today with COVID19. There are groups of people who do not believe they are at risk and therefore the behavior is predictable within the pandemic. The TTM model is the one in which we must focus on; allowing each person to be educated on the virus and how they each can do things to help protect themselves and their communities.

Glanz, K. (2016). Social and behavioral theories. Retrieved from

Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50(179-211).

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