How many valence electrons does iron have?

Iron has 8 valence electrons.
This is tricky!
You need to have a firm grasp of what you are talking about when you use the term “.”
For main-group elements, are the electrons in the outermost shell of the atom.
But iron is a transition metal.
Transition metals can use the electrons in their ##d## subshells as valence electrons.
Thus, valence electrons for a transition metal are defined as electrons that reside outside a noble-gas core.
For example, silicon (a main-group element) has the ##1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^2##.
Look at the numbers (not the superscripts) first!
The outermost shell is the third shell (##n=3##) and has ##s## and ##p## orbitals.
O.K. Now we can look at the superscripts (which designate the number of electrons in each orbital).
The total number of electrons in the ##n=3## shell is (2+2=)4, so silicon has 4 valence electrons.
With me so far?
Iron has an electron configuration ##1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^6## or ##[“Ar”] 4s^2 3d^6##.
The electrons outside the noble gas core are?
Right! The ##4s^2 3d^6## electrons.
Iron thus has 8 valence electrons!
Easy-Peasy, once you know the trick!
Note: Just because iron has 8 valence electrons doesn’t mean that it will use them all.
Iron usually uses only two or three of its valence electrons to form compounds

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