What is the earth made of?
is made of land, air, water and life. On a different perspective, the earth is made of many elements in different layers within the planet.
The earth’s land is in the form of mountains, valleys and flat places. The air is made of different gases. The water is in the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, rain, snow and ice. Life is in the form of we people, flora and fauna.
The earth’s atmosphere is made of mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with trace amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, neon, helium, hydrogen and other gases.
The earth’s surface is mainly covered with liquid water. The continental crust, the outermost surface layer, is made of rocks consisting of silica and alumina. The various elements are: oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium.
The mantle under the crust is made of silicate rocks rich in magnesium and iron, with aluminum, oxygen and other minerals.
At the center of the earth is the core, which has two parts: the liquid, outer core composed of a nickel-iron alloy, encompassing the solid, inner core of iron and nickel. The core consists mostly of iron (80%). Recent speculation suggests that the core is enriched in gold, platinum and other high-density transition elements.
Overall, the earth is made of 32% iron, 30% oxygen, 15% silicon, 14% magnesium, 3% sulfur, 2% nickel, and much smaller amounts of calcium, aluminum, sodium, potassium and other trace elements.