What is a hypothesis?
It is a statement that showcases your assumptions based on existing knowledge. It bases its assumptions on the knowledge, facts, and data you already have. A hypothesis is the development of knowledge. The assumption clarifies the properties and causes of the phenomenon being studied.
Based on the number of examples and observations, we form a hypothesis. This way, the hypothesis is subsequently proved by turning it into a fact or refuted. This allows it to attribute to the category of false statements.
Characteristics of a Hypothesis
- Must be specific.
- Must be clear and accurate for it to be reliable.
- It should have a scope for further investigations and experiments.
- Its explanation must be in simple language but retains its significance.
Sources of a Hypothesis
- Scientific theories.
- Observations from previous studies and current experiences.
- The resemblance among different phenomena.
- General patterns that affect people’s thinking process.
Types of Hypothesis
There are two major types of scientific hypotheses.
- Alternative Hypothesis. This hypothesis identifies the expected outcome of your research. You can further divide it into two subcategories;
- It explains the direction of your expected outcomes. Usually, it is used to study the relationship between variables rather than comparing the two groups.
- Non-directional. It does not imply a specific direction of the expected outcome.
Let’s look for an example of each type.
Directional. Attending more classes will result in improved tests among students.
Non-directional. Classes attendance will influence test scores among students.
It is the complete opposite of what you expect or predicts will happen throughout your course study. It’s generally denoted as H0. It claims that there is no exact correlation between the variables defined in the hypothesis.
For example, class attendance does not affect students’ scores.
Although these are the main two types, there are others to keep in mind.
Research hypothesis. It focuses on the correlation between two or more variables.
For example, eating food rich in vitamins affects someone’s health.
Complex hypothesis. It shows the correlation between two or more independent variables. For example, eating more fruits and vegetables leads to weight loss, a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, and better immunity.
Simple hypothesis. It indicates the collaboration between one dependent and one independent variable. For example. Eating foods rich in vitamin C leads to better immunity.
Hypothesis versus Prediction
Although these terms can generally be defined as “guesses”, these terms are different. Let’s look at some of their differences
|Is Predominantly used in science.||Often used out of science.|
|Is an intelligent assumption based on facts.||Guess that lacks grounds. It’s not based on facts.|
|Can be proven in multiple stages. Because it offers scope for further testing and experiments.||Can be proven once. Based only upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of the predicted event|
To have a better understanding of the two, let’s look at the following examples.
If I exercise regularly, then I will lose weight faster. It is a hypothesis because it focuses on available knowledge. I.e exercise burns calories and several studies show people who exercise regularly also lose weight.
World war III will occur in 2023.
It is a prediction because it foretells future events. However, this assumption is fictional. It lacks any grounded evidence supported by facts.
How to Write a Hypothesis
Here is a guide on how to write a hypothesis;
Define Your Research Question
The first thing you need to do is to start by asking the right research question. A perfect question must be specific, clear, and focused.
Example; How does exercise affect human health?
Conduct Your Basic Initial Research
Next, search for facts, past studies, and theories before you make an assumption. You should be able to make a logical or intelligent guess based on the collected information.
Formulate a Hypothesis.
You can restate your hypothesis in different ways based on the type of project and hypothesis you’re working on.
Body exercise will affect one’s human physical health.
Body exercise will positively affect one’s human physical health
Body exercise will not affect one’s physical health.
Refine your Hypothesis
This is the final stage. You need to make sure your hypothesis has the following;
- Clear and relevant variables
- Is specific and testable
- Identifies the relationship between variables
- Suggests a predicted result of the investigation
Here’s a list of different research questions with one hypothesis and one null hypothesis.
|Research Question||Hypothesis||Null Hypothesis|
|How does watching porn affect the brain?||Porn can harm a person’s brain, concentration, and memory.||Watching porn does not affect one’s brain
|How does drug misuse impact teenagers’ health?||There are negative health effects to misuse of drugs among teenagers||There is no correlation between misuse of drugs and teenagers’ health|
|How does stress affect the work performance of employees?||Increasing levels of stress among employees will result in decreased job performance.||Increasing levels of stress among employees will not affect job performance.|
|How does prolonged TV watching affect one’s vision?||Prolonged Tv watching can hurt a person’s vision||Pronged TV watching does not affect one’s vision|
Writing a hypothesis is not easy as it may seem. If you need help in forming a hypothesis, the team at Homework Mules is always ready to come to your rescue. Don’t hesitate. Just contact us and be guaranteed high-quality services.